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Dental Amalgam

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"It is the opinion of this academy that responsible government agencies should prohibit the use of these fillings until such time as their manufacturers produce the alleged evidence of safety."  IAOMT


The International Academy of Oral Medicine & Toxicology (IAOMT), A professional organization of dentists and physicians dedicated to the removal of mercury from dentistry.  A complete  and reliable source of data on the toxicity of dental amalgam.  A 38 page bibliography lists scientific papers demonstrating the health hazards of dental amalgam, up to date news reports and excellent short videos.
IAOMT letter to Rep. Norwood summarizing amalgam findings 12/05 (pdf)
Richard Fischer Testimony to Congressional Hearing  9/8/04 (pdf)
Amalgam Mercury:The Effects of Retention Toxicity, Synergistic Toxicities and Genetic Susceptibility - Dr. Boyd Haley Professor, Department of Chemistry University of Kentucky 9/06 (pdf)


WHO (World Health Organization) Report on Mercury 8/05
What Patients Don't Know (pdf) 2/14/06 Zogby poll on what patients know and want to know about amalgam fillings & dental care in the USA.  
Material Safety Data Sheets for dental amalgam:
Dental Amalgam Use - A Pollution Prevention Perspective The Western Regional Pollution Prevention Network (WRPPNTM) (pdf)


IAOMT - The Scientific Case Against Amalgam comprehensive review of scientfic data on the safety of amalgam. (pdf)
Committee on Government Reform (Rep. Burton) Hearings on Amalgam
Congresswoman Watson introduces "The Mercury in Dental Fillings Disclosure and Prevention Act" 12/14/06
Mercury Triggers Premature Birth  10/30/06 (pdf)
The Beneficial Effect of Amalgam Replacement on Health in Patients with Autoimmunity, Jarmila Prochazkova et al, Neuroendocrinology Letters, No. 3Vol. 25, June 2004 (pdf)
The Relationship of the Toxic Effects Of Mercury To Exacerabation Of The Medical Condition Classified As Alzheimer's Disease (pdf)
Presentation by Boyd E. Haley at Autism One Conference, May 26-29, 2005
Environmental & Toxicological Concerns of Dental Amalgam & Mercury (pdf)
Northeast Zero Mercury Campaign Report on Dental Amalgam (pdf) 4/4/05
Online Video of Boyd Haley on health effects of amalgam/thimerosal on health.
Boyd Haley Congressional Testimony on Mercury Toxicity, May 8, 2003 (pdf)
Boyd Haley report to FDA, The Relationship of Toxic Effects of Mercury to Exacerbation of the Medical Condition classified as Alzheimer's Disease (pdf)
Results from the Boyd Haley Laboratory Relating the Toxic Effects of Mercury to Exacerbation of the Medical Condition Classified as Alzheimer's Disease
Mercury Toxicity, Gut Wall Infection, and Fatigue, shows the relationship between mercury toxicity, irritable bowel diseases and chronic fatigue
KEMI (Sweden) Report 9/05 (pdf)
Sweden - Mercury in Dental fillings - an updated risk analysis, the results of a 5 year study which resulted in Sweden banning the use of amalgam. (pdf)
Excerpt: "For medical reasons, amalgam should be eliminated in dental care as soon as possible. This will confer gains in three respects. The prevalence of side-effects from patients' mercury exposure will decline; occupational exposure to mercury can cease in dental care; and one of our largest sources of mercury in the environment can be eliminated.

Dental materials left in patients' mouths should be treated as drugs for administrative purposes. Accordingly, toxicological and clinical testing should be required. Reporting of side-effects should also take place according to the same norms that apply to drugs.

It is imperative for doctors and dentists to be made aware of the fact that all dental restoration materials can give rise to side-effects, and that this eventuality should always be considered when the patient's pathological state is unclear. Side-effects may conceivably both cause, and be contributory factors in, various pathological states."


Mercury on the Mind, by Donald W. Miller JR, MD establishing data for the effects of mercury on brain function and connection with Alzheimers & Autism. (pdf)
Amalgam fillings -Twelve Points on Mercury Toxicity - effects on the body
Health Hazards of Mercury, Eric Davis, Weston Price Foundation
Mercury Toxicity by Flora Parsa Stay D.D.S.
Dental Filling Dangers, Monte Kline, Ph.D., Pacific Health Center
Health Effects of Amalgam Mercury Bibliography
Mercury Amalgam Toxicity, interview with Charles Williamson, M.D., co-director of the Toxic Studies Institute in Boca Raton, Florida and colleague, Jordan Davis, M.D
Mercury Free & Healthy, articles & bibliography of research abstracts etc.
Elements of Risk, Canada Legion Magazine '03
Amalgam & Health Bibliography
Mercury Amalgam Safety, Dr. Zoltan P. Rona MD MSc describing relationship of amalgam to health and facial pain syndromes
Maine Dental Fillings Materials Patient Brochure (pdf)
How Mercury-Tainted Tuna Damages Fetal Brains (mechanism is the same from mercury from the mother's amalgams)
Environmental Working Group (EWG) Mercury Primer
Mercury Threat to Fetus Raised (Washington Post - pdf)
" As every dentist knows, it is a good risk management practice to discuss the risks and benefits of a proposed treatment plan with a patient before starting treatment. In many cases, the dentist has a cooresponding legal obligation to obtain informed consent from a patient before beginning treatment " Oct 2003 JADA (Journal of the American Dental Association) cover story A Duty to Disclose, Issues to Consider in Securing Informed Consent"

Environmental Concerns with Mercury Amalgam

Mercury reservoirs

The Problem: Reservoirs of mercury must go somewhere.  The cremation rate in the US is nearly 50% (higher in some locations).  Mercury amalgam in the human body goes into toxic air emissions during cremation. In the UK, where they are carefully monitoring these emissions, they estimate 16% of their total air emissions of mercury are from cremation.
Cremation costs to rise as tooth fillings poison the living 1/9/07 (pdf)
Environmental Impacts of Dental Amalgam (pdf)
Cremations ban planned to cut mercury pollution - UK 12/29/05 (pdf)
'Mad' rule on teeth of dead - Wales 11/17/05 (pdf)
Dental fillings mean dearer cremations - Leeds 10/18/05 (pdf)
Plan for freeze-dry body disposal - BBC 10/13/05 (pdf)
Mercury Emissions from Creamatoria, Natural Resources Council of Maine 5/05 (pdf)
Over 1,000 Tons of Dental Mercury to be Emitted in Next 10-15 Years; Report Grades New England States' Progress on Reducing Mercury Use 4/4/05

Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District

"The Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies (AMSA) reports that mercury levels in household wastewater are sufficiently high to pose Clean Water Act compliance problems for the nation's wastewater treatment plants. Although several sources contributing to the domestic mercury concentrations have been identified, human wastes (feces and urine) from individuals with dental amalgam fillings are believed to be the most significant source — greater than 80 percent."
The Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies (AMSA) report 2000 (pdf)
The Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies (AMSA) report 2002 (pdf)
Swedish Review of data on Sludge (pdf)  Mercury is very difficult to remove from wastewater.  Most of the mercury collected in wastewater sludge, is sent to landfills, sludge-incinerators, composting facilities or spread on farmers fields.
Dental Amalgam - Environmental Aspects, D. Arenholt-Bindsley, Royal Dental College, Denmark, 1992 (pdf)
Leaders & Laggards: The 2002 Report Card on Mercury Elimination in New England (pdf)
Mercury in Waste Dental Amalgam: Why Is It Still A Problem 2003 study of amalgam in wastewater treatment plants in Canada with some USA data (pdf)
Reduction in Mercury Loading to Four Toronto Area Sewage Treatment Plants Due to Implementation of an Amalgam Separator By-Law (pdf)
Vermont Dental Amalgam Separator Pilot Project (pdf)
MAXIMUM Separation Systems Inc. Amalgam Separators, letter to dentists (pdf)
Mercury Can Make You Sick NJDHSS, Occupational Health Surveillance Program (pdf)
Canada-wide Standards for dental amalgam waste
Dental Mercury Use and Release Reduction (pdf)
Dentist the Menace, discussion of disposal of mercury waste (pdf)
IAOMT Position Paper - Environmental Committee (Separators) pdf
Mercury in Dental Offices "Many common demolition activities such as cutting out sewage pipes can release large amounts of mercury steam and can be dangerous to the workers."


Barnes vs. Kerr - Federal court finding that dental amalgam was adequately labeled as a poisonous substance in its amalgam state (pdf)
Federal Insurance v. ADA (pdf), In conjunction with a lawsuit filed in 2004 in Ohio for damages from mercury fillings, Federal Insurance, a division of CHUBB, has sued the ADA stating that the ADA is not insured for said damages by fact that the placement of mercury fillings was an intentional act regardless of known risks. This is that complaint (75 pgs.)
Maine Dental Fillings Materials Patient Brochure (pdf)
Anti-amalgam Resolution of Black Caucus 2002 (pdf)


Legal position of the American Dental Association (ADA) on the safety of mercury dental amalgam use by dentists in the USA:

"The ADA owes no legal duty of care to protect the public from allegedly dangerous products used by dentists. The ADA did not manufacture, design, supply or install the mercury-containing amalgams. The ADA does not control those who do. The ADA's only alleged involvement in the product was to provide information regarding its use. Dissemination of information relating to the practice of dentistry does not create a duty of care to protect the public from potential injury".

Source: Legal brief filed in 1995 by attorneys for the ADA in W.H. Tolhurst vs. Johnson and Johnson Consumer Products, Inc.; Engelhard Corporation; ABE Dental, Inc.; the American Dental Association, et al., in the Superior Court of the State of California, in and for the County of Santa Clara, CA, Case No. 718228.

American Dental Association (ADA)

ADA Best Management Practices 2005 (pdf)
ADA Code of Ethics 2005 (pdf)
ADA Precautions to Dental Practices on Handling of Mercury (pdf)


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